To celebrate the 199th anniversary of the American victory at the Battle
of Lake Erie, the Ohio Statehouse organized a presentation about the War
of 1812. The Statehouse requested that OHS staff bring artifacts related
to the Treaty of Greene Ville of 1795. The display included a calumet or
peace pipe and wampum belt that were exchanged as part of the treaty
ceremonies. Ohio Historical Society curators also brought a George Washington peace medal.
The Battle of Lake Erie was fought September 10, 1813. Commanded by
Oliver Hazard Perry, the American squadron defeated and captured the entire British squadron. His victory enabled General William H. Harrison to recapture Detroit and drive the British back into Upper Canada. At the Battle of the Thames, Harrison’s army defeated a combined force of British and Native Americans. During the battle, the great Shawnee
leader, Tecumseh, was killed.
To understand the War of 1812 from a Native American perspective, the Treaty of Greene Ville is very important. Years of conflict between the U.S. and native peoples culminated in an American victory at Fallen
Timbers on August 20, 1794. The American commander, Anthony Wayne, used the victory to convince the tribes to negotiate a peace at Greenville, Ohio. Ceding the southern two thirds of Ohio, Native Americans saw the treaty as a last ditch effort to create a long-lasting, peaceful relationship with the United States.
Chiefs of the Wyandot, Delaware, Shawnee, Ottawa, Chippewa, Potawatami, Miami, Eel River Miami, Wea, Kickapoo, Piankashaw, and Kaskaskia signed the Treaty of Greene Ville on August 3, 1795.
In the years that followed, the United States continued to pressure
Native Americans to cede more land. Acts of violence committed by both
sides created an environment of mistrust and hostility. As war loomed
with Great Britain, many Americans saw the tribes of the Old Northwest
Territory as eager collaborators with a foreign power. Native peoples
despaired that they could never make a lasting accommodation with the